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You should totally avoid gambling, drugs, gurus, cults and get-rich-quick schemes. September 5 to October 5 — Jupiter square Neptune is exact on September 21 for the third and last time in your Gemini horoscope for this confusing influence. It is normal to feel suspicious and paranoid during this transit.

Rely on the advice of trusted friends and family. October 13 to November 30 — Saturn sextile Neptune is exact on November 8 for the third and last time.


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You might become attracted to groups or clubs with similar values or beliefs to your own. These may include churches and other religious or spiritual groups, charities, welfare and support groups, animal rights and other environmental causes. This transit is also associated with finding or building your dream home. Your Gemini Horoscope is based on planetary transits to Gemini Decan 2, not to houses, zones or sectors.

March to March — Uranus sextile your decan only applies to those born on June 19 and 20 for the first three months of Most of you have already experienced this refreshing change. Uranus lets you express yourself more fully, more in tune with who you really are. This will be liberating and you may be pleasantly surprised by how your ego gets a lift from a new and unique personality. At work, you may be offered a new position with more money, or at least a welcome change.

If looking for work you may get a breakthrough you were not expecting. It is likely you will meet new and unusual people and have more involvement with friends and groups. This eclipse will improve your home and family life in small but significant steps. Shared interests and mutual respect will foster new and beneficial friendships. February 11 to June 10 — Jupiter opposite your decan can be a time of confronting excessive behaviors like greed.

Taking more than you really need will affect other people and could cause some relationship difficulties. Jupiter retrograde on April 10 means you have this same transit again from October 10 to December 5 this year. July 16 to December 25 — The July 16 Lunar Eclipse means you will have to make adjustments in your home and family life in response to changing circumstances.

Mood swings and anxiety are possible in your intimate relationships.


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The key to harmonious relationships is staying open-minded and flexible. This is a powerful and confrontational lunar eclipse. Intense emotional reactions, compulsive behavior, and power struggles could result in a crisis. But it also brings hope that empathy and understanding will lead to lasting changes. October 10 to December 5 — Jupiter opposite your decan again can bring fortune and material success. Your Gemini Horoscope is based on planetary transits to Gemini Decan 3, not to houses, zones or sectors. Menu Skip to content. Search for:. After the crucifixion of Jesus, his brother, James, led the small community of Judeo-Christians in Jerusalem.

Under his leadership, the Jerusalem "church" tried to preserve the Jewishness of the group, and opposed attempts to bring in non-Jews who had not been circumcised. The time of his appointment as first bishop of Jerusalem is not known, but "his term ended tragically in the year 62, after the death of the Roman governor Festus, and on the eve of the arrival of his successor Albinus to Judea. The social ferment in Jerusalem increased greatly during that time and erupted after four years, at the same time as the Great Revolt of the Jews against the Romans. In the later Christian tradition, there is a somewhat different version of the circumstances of his death: "James the Just" is described as a holy man who "didn't drink wine and strong drink, didn't eat meat, and never used a razor on his head.

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But James refused to deny the gospel of his brother, and therefore he was thrown off the wall. When it turned out that he hadn't been killed by the fall, "they started to stone him," it is said, and one person among the masses, a washerman by trade, beat James on the head with a cudgel. James the Lesser was a righteous man. The Book of James in the New Testament testifies to his hopes and values. What is not said above is that many Jews respected James even amongst the religious. Nevertheless, G-d used the Romans to destroy the Second Temple because of the sin of senseless hatred.

The reference to Minim, spies, in the 19 th blessing of the Amidah meant Christians at one time. Unfortunately, the New Testament trains anti-Semitism into each new generation by stereotyping Jewish leaders and individuals with negative parables and accusations. Long-buried Vatican files reveal a new and shocking indictment of World War II's Pope Pius XII: that in pursuit of absolute power he helped Adolf Hitler destroy German Catholic political opposition, betrayed the Jews of Europe, and sealed a deeply cynical pact with a 20th-century devil.

One evening several years ago when I was having dinner with a group of students, the topic of the. A young man, a practicing Catholic, insisted that the case had never been proved. Raised as a Catholic during the papacy of Pius Xll — his picture gazed down from the wall of every. It depicted Pacelli as a ruthless cynic, interested more in the Vatican's stockholdings than in the fate of the Jews.

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Most Catholics dismissed Hochhuth's thesis as implausible, but the play sparked a controversy which has raged to this day. Disturbed by the anger brought out in that dinner altercation, and convinced, as I had always been,of Pius XII's innocence, I decided to write a new defense of his reputation for a younger generation.

I believed that Pacelli's evident holiness was proof of his good faith. How could such a saintly pope have betrayed the Jews? But was it possible to find a new and conclusive approach to the issue? The arguments had so far focused mainly on his wartime conduct; however, Pacelli's Vatican career had started 40 years earlier. It seemed to me that a proper investigation into Pacelli's record would require a more extensive chronicle than any attempted in the past.

So I applied for access to archival material in the Vatican, reassuring those who had charge of crucial documents that I was on the side of my subject. Two key officials granted me access to secret material: depositions under oath gathered 30 years ago to support the process for Pacelli's canonization, and the archive of the Vatican Secretariat of State, the foreign office of the Holy See. I also drew on German sources relating to Pacelli's activities in Germany during the s and s, including his dealings with AdoIf Hitler in For months on end I ransacked Pacelli's files, which dated back to , in a windowless dungeon beneath the Borgia Tower in Vatican City.

Later I sat for several weeks in a dusty office in the Jesuit headquarters, close to St. Peter's Square in Rome, mulling over a thousand pages of transcribed testimony given under oath by those who had known Pacelli well during his lifetime, including his critics. By the middle of , 1 was in a state of moral shock. The material I had gathered amounted not to an exoneration but to an indictment more scandalous than Hochhuth's. The evidence was explosive. It showed for the first time that PaceIli was patently, and by the proof of his own words, anti-Jewish.

It revealed that he had helped Hitler to power and at the same time undermined. It showed that he had implicitly denied and trivialized the Holocaust,despite having reliable knowledge of its true extent. And, worse, that he was a hypocrite, for after the war he had retrospectively taken undue credit for speaking out boldly against the Nazi persecution of the Jews. In the "Holy Year" of , a year in which many millions of pilgrims flocked to Rome to. This was the Pius people now in their mids and older remember from newsreels and newspaper photographs. He was 74 years old and still vigorous. Six feet tall, stick thin at pounds, light on his feet, regular in habits, he had hardly altered physically from the day of his coronation 11 years earlier.

He had beautiful tapering hands, a plaintive voice, large dark eyes and an aura of holiness. It was his extreme pallor that first arrested those who met him. His skin "had surprisingly transparent effect," observed the writer Gerrado Pallenberg, "as if reflecting from the inside a cold, white flame. I was so affected I could scarcely speak without tears and was conscious that my legs were trembling. But there was another side to his character, little known to the faithful. Although he was a man of selfless, monklike habits of prayer and simplicity, he was a believer in the absolute leadership principle.

More than any other Vatican official of the century, he had promoted the modern ideology of autocratic papal control, the highly centralized, dictatoria1 authority he himself assumed on March 2, , and maintained until his death in October There was a time before the advent of modern communications when Catholic authority was widely distributed, in the collective decisions of the church's councils and in collegial power-sharing between the Pope and the bishops.

The absolutism of the modern papacy is largely an invention of the late 19th century It developed rapidly in the first decades of this century in response to the perception of the centrifugal breakup of the church under an array of contemporary pressures: materialism, increasing sexual freedom, religious skepticism, and social and political liberties. From his young manhood on, Pacelli played a leading role in shaping the conditions and scope of modern papal power.

Eugenio Pacelli was born in Rome in , into a family of church lawyers who served the Vatican.

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He had an older sister and brother and a younger sister. His parents, devout Catholics, shared an apartment in central Rome with his grandfather, who had been a legal adviser to Pius IX, the longest-serving Pope in history. There was only one small brazier to supply heat for the whole family, even in the depths of winter. Eugenio was a modest youth, who never appeared before his siblings unless he was fully dressed in a jacket and tie.

He would always come to the table with a book, which he would read after having asked the family's permission. From an early age he acted out the ritual of the Mass, dressed in robes supplied by his mother. He had a gift for languages and a prodigious memory. He was spindly and suffered from a "fastidious stomach. Politically and legally, however, he was capable of great subtlety and cunning.


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The Pacelli's were fiercely loyal to the injured merit of the papacy. From , the Popes had progressively lost to the emerging nation-state of Italy their dominions, which had formed, since time immemorial, the midriff of the Italian peninsula. Six years before Eugenio's birth, the city of Rome itself had been seized, leaving the papacy in crisis. How could the Popes regard themselves as independent now that they were mere citizens of an upstart kingdom?

Eugenio's grandfather and father believed passionately that the Popes could once again exert a powerful unifying authority over the church by the application of ecclesiastical and international law. In , at a gathering in Rome of a preponderance of the world's bishops, known as the First Vatican Council, the Pope was dogmatically declared infallible in matters of faith and morals.

He was also declared the unchallenged primate of the faithful. The Pope may have lost his temporal dominion, but spiritually he was solely in charge of his universal church. During the first two decades of this century, papal primacy and infallibility began to creep even beyond the ample boundaries set by the First Vatican Council.

A powerful legal instrument transformed the primacy dogma into an unprecedented principle of papal power. Eugenio Pacelli, by then a brilliant young Vatican lawyer, had a major part in the drafting of that instrument, which was known as the Code of Canon Law. Pacelli had been recruited into the Vatican in , at the age of 24, to specialize in international affairs and church law. Pious, slender, with dark luminous eyes, he was an instant favorite. He was invited to collaborate on the reformulation of church law with his immediate superior, Pietro Gaspam, a world-famous canon lawyer.

Packaged in a single manual, the Code of Canon Law was distributed in to Catholic bishops and clergy throughout the world. But there was a problem. The church had historically granted the dioceses in the provincial states of Germany a large measure of local discretion and independence from Rome. Germany had one of the largest Catholic populations in the world, and its congregation was well educated and sophisticated, with hundreds of Catholic associations and newspapers and many Catholic universities and publishing houses.

The historic autonomy of Germany's Catholic Church was enshrined in ancient church-state treaties known as concordats. Aged 41 and already an archbishop, PaceIli was dispatched to Munich as papal nuncio, or ambassador, to start the process of eliminating all existing legal challenges to the new papal autocracy. At the same time ,he was to pursue a Reich Concordat, a treaty between the papacy and Germany as a whole which would supersede all local agreements and become a model of Catholic church-state relations.

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Such an arrangement was fraught with significance for a largely Protestant Germany. Nearly years earlier, in Wittenberg, Martin Luther had publicly burned a copy of Canon Law in defiance of the centralized authority of the church. It was one of the defining moments of the Reformation, which was to divide Western Christendom into Catholics and Protestants. In May , Pacelli set off for Germany via Switzerland in a private railway compartment, with an additional wagon containing 60 cases of special foods for his delicate stomach. Shortly after he settled in Munich, he acquired a reputation as a vigorous relief worker.

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He traveled through war-weary Germany extending charity to people of all religions and none. In an early letter to the Vatican, however he revealed himself to be less than enamored of Germany's Jews.

On September 4, PaceIli informed Pietro Gaspam, who had become cardinal secretary of state in the Vatican -- the equivalent of foreign minister and prime minister -- that a Dr. Werner, the chief rabbi of Munich, had approached the nunciature begging a favor. In order to celebrate the festival of Tabernacles, beginning on October 1, the Jews needed palm fronds, which normally came from Italy. But the Italian government had forbidden the exportation, via Switzerland, of a stock of palms which the Jews had purchased and which were being held up in Como.

Pacelli informed Gaspam that he had warned the rabbi that "wartime delays in communication" would make things difficult. He also told Gaspam that he did not think it appropriate for the Vatican "to assist them in the exercise of their Jewish cult. Gaspatti replied by telegram on September 18 that he entirely trusted Pacelli's "shrewdness," agreeing that it would not be appropriate to help Rabbi Werner.

PaceIli wrote back on September 28, , informing Gasparri that he had again seen the Rabbi, who "was perfectly convinced of the reasons I had given him and thanked me warmly for all that I had done on his behalf. The episode, small in itself, belies subsequent claims that Pacelli had a great love of the Jewish religion and was always motivated by its best interests. Eighteen months later he revealed his antipathy toward the Jews in a more blatantly anti-Semitic fashion when he found himself at the center of a local revolution as Bolshevik groups struggled to take advantage of the chaos in postwar Munich.

Writing to Gasparri, Pacelli described the revolutionaries and their chief, Eugen Levien in their headquarters in the former royal palace. The letter has lain in the Vatican secret archive like a time bomb until now: "The scene that presented itself at the palace was indescribable. The confusion totally chaotic, the filth completely nauseating; soldiers and armed workers coming and going; the building, once the home of a king, resounding with screams, vile language, profanities. Absolute hell. An army of employees were dashing to and fro, giving out orders, waving bits of paper, and in the midst of all this, a gang of young women, of dubious appearance, Jews like all the rest of them, hanging around in all the offices with provocative demeanor and suggestive smiles.

The boss of this female gang was Levien's mistress, a young Russian woman, a Jew and a divorcee, who was in charge. And it was to her that the nunciature was obliged to pay homage in order to proceed. This Levien is a young man, about 30 or 35, also Russian and a Jew.

Pale, dirty, with vacant eyes, hoarse voice, vulgar, repulsive, with a face that is both intelligent and sly. But the repeated references to the Jewishness of these individuals, along with the catalogue of stereotypical epithets deploring their physical and moral repulsiveness, betray a scorn and revulsion consistent with anti-Semitism.

Not long after this, Pacelli campaigned to have black French troops removed from the Rhineland, convinced that they were raping women and abusing children — even though an independent inquiry sponsored by the U. Congress, of which Pacelli was aware, proved this allegation false. Twenty-three years later, when the Allies were about to enter Rome, he asked the British envoy to the Vatican to request of the British Foreign Office that no Allied colored troops would be among the small number that might be garrisoned in Rome after the occupation.

Pacelli spent 13 years in Germany attempting to rewrite the state Concordats one by one in favor of the power of the Holy See and routinely employing diplomatic blackmail. Germany was caught up in many territorial disputes following the redrawing of the map of Central Europe after the First World War. Pacelli repeatedly traded promises of Vatican support for German control of disputed regions in return for obtaining terms advantageous to the Vatican in Concordats. The German government's official in charge of Vatican affairs at one point recorded the "ill feeling" prompted by Pacelli's "excessive demands.

In his negotiations, Pacelli was not concerned about the fate of non-Catholic religious communities or institutions, or about human rights. He was principally preoccupied with the interests of the Holy See. Nothing could have been better designed to deliver Pacelli into the hands of Hitler later, when the future dictator made his move in In June , Pacelli became nuncio to all of Germany, with headquarters in Berlin as well as in Munich, and immediately acquired a glittering reputation in diplomatic circles. He was a favorite at dinner parties and receptions, and he was known to ride horses on the estate of a wealthy German family.

His household was run by a pretty young nun from southern Germany named Sister Pasqualina Lehnert. Pacelli's sister Elisabetta, who battled with the nun for Pacelli's affections, described Pasqualina as "scaltrissima"-- extremely cunning. In Munich it had been rumored that he cast more than priestly eyes on this religious housekeeper. Pacelli insisted that a Vatican investigation into this "horrible calumny" be conducted at the highest level, and his reputation emerged unbesmirched.

Meanwhile, he had formed a close relationship with an individual named Ludwig Kaas. Kaas was a representative of the solidly Catholic German Center Party, one of the largest and most powerful democratic parties in Germany. Though it was unusual for a full-time politician, he was also a Roman Catholic priest. Five years Pacelli's junior, dapper, bespectacled, and invariably carrying a smart walking stick, Kaas, known as "the prelate," became an intimate collaborator of Pacelli's on every aspect of Vatican diplomacy in Germany.

With Pacelli's encouragement, Kaas eventually became the chairman of the Center Party, the first priest to do so in the party's year history. Yet while Kaas was officially a representative of a major democratic party, he was increasingly devoted to Pacelli to the point of becoming his alter ego. Sister Pasqualina stated after Pacelli's death that Kaas, who "regularly accompanied Pacelli on holiday" was linked to him in "adoration, honest love and unconditional loyalty.

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